Sunday, November 20, 2022

Raising agent

Leavening or raising means to increase the surface area of any dough or batter by creating gas bubbles inside the dough or batter. The bubbles of carbon dioxide add air to the mixture, which is then baked and the air bubbles become locked into the protein structure of the sponge creating the fluffy crumb.

The products that use raising agents include: dry mixes, cakes, batters, pizza bases, frozen bake-at-home products, and refrigerated doughs.

Raising agents that are used in the kitchen can be classified into the following categories:
· Biological (Yeast).
· Chemical (Baking powder, baking soda, baking ammonia).
· Mechanical (Beating, whisking, creaming, sieving).
· Lamination.
· Natural Leavening Agents.

The primary agent used in organic leavening is yeast, a monocellular microorganism that reproduces by feeding on sugar, minerals, nitrogen compounds, and oxygen. Yeast is a tiny living fungus and can be of two types

1) Fresh or compressed Yeast and

2) Dry Yeast and It thrives on sweetness, warmth and moisture. As the yeast eats, it excretes carbon dioxide and alcohol. It is this gas which causes a rise in the baked product.

Chemical leavener work by reacting with water, salts, acids, or other substances to produce carbon dioxide, which causes pastry and bread dough to rise. Two of the most commonly used chemical leaveners in baking are baking soda and baking powder.

Baking powder was developed as an alternative to yeast. Baking powder is a mixture of baking soda (an alkali) and an acid. In most cases, cream of tartar is used as the acid. Baking powder is used in most recipes where cake is being baked or cupcakes, as well as pancakes and even cookies.

Steam is a common physical raising agent. It is produced from the liquids (e.g. water, milk, eggs) that are added to mixtures, or from water contained in a solid component (e.g. butter). Examples of recipes which use steam as a raising agent are batters.
Raising agent

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